False Creek Neighbourhood - Vancouver, BC
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History & Heritage
Less than 100 years ago the False Creek and Fairview Slopes area were a forest of huge fir trees. Fairview was named in 1886 by CPR Land Commissioner L.A. Hamilton. Hamilton's survey established the numbered system of east-west avenues and named the cross streets after trees.
In 1887, the CPR, at the request of Vancouver City Council, agreed to locate its Pacific terminal yards on the north side of the Creek. The forest was replaced-by shipbuilding yards, sawmills, shingle mills, and various woodworking plants. In 1916, Granville Island was created from soil dredged from False Creek.
In 1928, the CPR and the provincial government swapped land to give each consolidated holdings, the CPR on the north side and the province on the south side. Another land swap in 1968, through which the City acquired the land from the province, prepared the way for the present residential and recreational development and marked the beginning of another transformation.
Fairview Slopes, which overlooks False Creek from the south, began to develop following the construction of the Fairview Beltline (a streetcar loop built from downtown through Fairview along Broadway) and the opening of the Granville and Cambie Street bridges. In 1902, the City purchased 5.5 acres (two city blocks) from the CPR for $5,500 for a new hospital at 10th Avenue and Heather Street. Land was in demand for residential development during these years and a number of substantive homes were built in the area.
From the early 1920s to the early 1960s, Fairview Slopes was zoned for 3 storey apartments and throughout the 1950s, the area south of Broadway developed as an apartment district. Broadway, as well as Granville and Cambie Streets, became important neighbourhood commercial strips. At the same time, the Slopes were rezoned to industrial use, and some houses were replaced with small industries.
The 1970s were a time of dramatic change for both False Creek and Fairview Slopes. Based on the recommendations by citizens, two advisory review panels, and City staff, policies which laid out guidelines for redeveloping False Creek were adopted by City Council in 1973. The new City policy required a range of housing to provide a social mix that reflected the City's income and social composition. The City also decided to keep ownership of most of South False Creek.
Concurrent with the planning for South False Creek, plans to redevelop Granville Island were also being considered. In 1972, administration for the 15 hectare (37 acres) island, was transferred from the National Harbours Board to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and a movement to rejuvenate the site started to gain momentum. Early in 1976 the Granville Island Trust was formed to advise on the Island's future. The first phase of the Island's redevelopment, the Public Market, opened in 1979, soon followed by the Maritime Market, Emily Carr College of Art, theatres, artist's studios, craft galleries and restaurants.
As the City's plans for False Creek took shape, pressure arose to redevelop the Slopes for high density uses. The area was rezoned in 1972 from industrial to residential/commercial. Fairview Heights, a small fifteen-block area extending south of Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (formerly Vancouver General Hospital), was rezoned in 1984 from a duplex to a low-rise apartment zone. Since then the area has been extensively redeveloped providing additional housing opportunities for those employed in the downtown core and with Vancouver Hospital.
Hodson Manor is one of the oldest surviving houses in Fairview. Built in 1894 for Vancouver Ice and Cold Storage Company founder Captain James Logan, the home was moved two blocks in 1974. Today, the city-owned building, at 1254 West 7th Avenue, is used as a meeting place for non-profit societies.
The Seaforth Armoury on Burrard Street was built in 1935/36 to house the Seaforth Highlanders. Some of the drill hall's design features include stepped gables, round towers, cast thistle and finials.
Other notable heritage buildings include the James England House, at 2300 Birch, and the 1889 Fairview House, built at 1151 West 8th Avenue for Sir John and Lady Reid. The 1929 Dick Building and the Stanley Theatre, are both local landmarks located on Granville Street. Nearby, the 1912 Chalmers United Church sits at 2801 Hemlock Street.
City Square Mall is an example of the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings. In this case, the 1905 Model School and the 1908 Provincial Normal School were incorporated into a new shopping mall.
For detailed information on heritage buildings in this area, and in Vancouver
generally, visit City
of Vancouver Heritage.
Additional information is available through the City of Vancouver Archives.
Area Planning & Zoning
In the 1970s, much of Fairview underwent a community planning process that resulted in zoning and development that exists today. Plans developed include:
- The False Creek Official Development Plan  dealt with industrial land along the south shore of False Creek. Most of the land is City-owned.
- Fairview Slopes Policy Plan  resulted in the FM-1 zoning.
- Reference Document for Granville Island  sets out a plan for this federally-owned land.
Interim planning for Burrard Slopes in 1993 resulted in new Burrard Slopes C-3A Guidelines; the Burrard Slopes IC Districts Interim Policies guiding site-specific rezonings to mixed uses; a Parks and Open Space strategy; and adoption of a Development Cost Levies Bylaw. Projects guided by this work include two mixed commercial/light industrial/residential projects on West 1st Avenue, Fifth Avenue Cinemas, "Portico" on the old Pacific Press sites, and the new park located in the Granville Bridge loop. It is anticipated that further planning work will replace the interim rezoning policies in Burrard Slopes.
The Vancouver General Hospital is a major Fairview institution. In 2000 the Vancouver General Hospital Precinct Policy Statement outlined how current zoning could be adapted to permit additional medical technological use. The statement also provides for limited commercial and residential uses, retention of the 1906 Heather Pavilion, and public open space.
In 1995, Vancouver City Council approved CityPlan: Directions for Vancouver. CityPlan is a citywide plan that will guide City decisions on programs, priorities and actions through 2021. CityPlan provides general directions for a range of topics and issues in which the City is involved including neighbourhood centres, housing variety and affordability, neighbourhood character, services, safety, arts and culture, public places, economy and jobs, transportation, environment, downtown development, financial accountability, and decision making. [CityPlan]
The Community Visions Program is a component of CityPlan that provides each community with an opportunity to look into its future, determine its needs and aspirations, and set a course that is consistent with CityPlan. Community visioning is being implemented in areas where there has been little or no previous community planning.
Fairview has undergone extensive community planning and will not be part of the Community Visioning process. It may be included in a "re-visioning" process in the future. [Community Visions]
The zoning types found in Fairview are listed below.
- RM-3: either three- to four-storey or twelve-storey apartment buildings.
No design review.
- RM-4: three- to four-storey apartment buildings. Design review.
- FM-1: two- to four-storey townhouses and apartment buildings. Design
- C-3A: office or apartment buildings with retail space on the ground
level. Up to 35.6 m in height. Design review.
- FCCDD: a mix of uses and building forms. Design review.
- IC-1 and IC-2: light industrial and service buildings up to 18.3 m
in height. No design review.
- CD-1: different forms of development under customized, site-specific regulations. Design review. Vancouver General Hospital area is zoned CD-1.